Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48 440 adult patients

From the British Journal of Sports Medicine , Original research paper.

  • First published April 13, 2021.

Authors:
Robert Sallis, Deborah Rohm Young, Sara Y Tartof, James F Sallis, Jeevan Sall1, Qiaowu Li, Gary N Smith, Deborah A Cohen

The study compared hospitalisation rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality for patients with COVID-19 who were consistently inactive, doing some activity or consistently meeting physical activity guidelines.

Consistently meeting physical activity guidelines was strongly associated with a reduced risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes among infected adults. We recommend efforts to promote physical activity be prioritised by public health agencies and incorporated into routine medical care.

For Full study: Click on the link Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes

Exposure to impacts across a competitive rugby season impairs balance and neuromuscular function in female rugby athletes

An Original research paper that went under the radar, another science paper coming out of Canada.

Authors

Stephanie E Black

Bruno Follmer

Rinaldo André Mezzarane

Gregory E P Pearcey

Yao Sun

Dr. E Paul Zehr

  1. Rehabilitation Neuroscience Laboratory, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
  2. School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
  3. Human Discovery Science, International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), Vancouver, BC, Canada
  4. Laboratory of Signal Processing and Motor Control, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
  5. Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
  6. Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada

The study did an objective assessment tools to detect subtle neurological deficits that accompany repetitive and mild head impacts in contact sport across a
season.

What are the new findings in the study:

► A competitive rugby season induces subtle deteriorations in neuromuscular function that is not captured in traditional sideline assessment.

► Differentiation between static stances which range

in difficulty is relevant to uncover subtle changes in

balance.

► Tandem-leg and double-leg static stances are sensitive to detect centre of pressure alteration following

a season of recurrent head impacts.

► Spinal cord excitability measurements suggest deviated values at baseline

 

The study also found impact in clinical practices in Future studies.

► Implementing an objective balance measure as a clinical assessment may uncover subtle neurological. impairments without diagnosed concussion.

► Double-leg stance is often overlooked by subjective assessments, but it provides an insightful outcome if performed using a sensitive tool.

► The challenging tandem-leg stance over a foam pad notably contributes to a clinical assessment after recurrent mild head impacts.

► Spinal cord excitability may be suitable for detecting particular neurological patterns in female athletes exposed to head impacts performed using a sensitive tool.

Study Conclusions:

The study concluded that quantitative measures revealed that exposure to impacts across a competitive rugby season impair balance in two specific stances in female rugby athletes. Tandem-leg stance on an unstable surface and double-leg stance on firm surface are useful assessment conditions when performed over a low-cost balance board, even without clinically diagnosed concussion.

Click on link for full study: Exposure to impacts across a competitive rugby season impairs balance and neuromuscular function in female rugby athletes

Hydration in Amateur Sport

After a year away from the sporting pitches and with the possible return to full training of Semi Professional and Amateur (Grass roots) sports in June, we must never forget the fundamental role that water plays in our body, cooling, nutrient transport, joint lubrication, digestion, and absorption.

Ref: EU Hydration institute.

The Human body is 60 or 70% made up of water, many of it is found in the blood and muscles. The amount of water in the body is limited, if the losses are not replaced there may be a decrease in heat transmission from the muscles to the skin, the consequence of which will be the increase in body temperature, favouring the risk of dehydration, the first signs are intense thirst, dry body, hot, dry skin and mucous membranes, cramps (sodium is lost due to perspiration), depletion by hydro-electrolytic imbalance (which manifests with dizziness, sweat, tachycardia, headache, paleness, etc.), heatstroke (decreased level of consciousness, neuromuscular un-coordination).

Dehydration causes a decrease in aerobic capacity, maximum aerobic potency, muscle endurance and the ability to develop physical work. In addition to the physical qualities mentioned, mental faculties, fine coordination and therefore it is essential to provide fluids during exercise, mainly when large water losses occur. The proper way to hydrate will depend on:

  • The goal to achieve (increase muscle mass, decrease adipose tissue, optimize performance, etc.)
  • The intensity, frequency, duration, etc. of the training to be performed
  • The weather (temperature and humidity)
  • Individual variations (there are people who sweat more than others) Having these factors present should opt for the right drink (water and / or sports drink) and rehydration strategies should be practiced during training. Recommendation: Never try a new strategy on match day, that is what training is for.

HYDRATATION (PARTY/TRAINING)

The goal is to ensure a state of euhydration (i.e. normal hydration) and prevent gastrointestinal discomfort. Avoid diuretic or gas drinks (alcohol, coffee, etc) and Drink between 300-600ml of water (without gas) in the pre-match time (preheating); and more if the temperature and/or humidity are high or if you are a “profuse sweater”.

Normal hydration status is defined the presumed condition of healthy individuals who maintain water balance. Evaluation of hydration status is not easy, as during daily activities or exercise, fluid compartments are constantly fluctuating and therefore the evaluation of a single body fluid compartment volume is insufficient to provide valid information about total body water (TBW) .

HYDRATION DURING (Matches/Training)

Players need to be educated regarding the benefits of fluid replacement to promote performance and safety and the potential risks of both hypohydration and hyperhydration on health and physical performance. Quantify sweat rates for physically active individuals during exercise in various environments. Work with individuals to develop fluid-replacement practices that promote sufficient but not excessive hydration before, during, and after physical activity.

The goal is to replenish sweat-lost water and provide an energy source, to delay glycogenic emptying and therefore fatigue.

With high-performance athletes, restricting dehydration to no more than 2% body mass loss helps to maintain the physiological, perceptual, and safety aspects of their exercise while aiding in exercise recovery and subsequent training sessions.

Dehydration is the process of water loss from the body and being in a dehydrated state means you no longer have sufficient fluid in your body to optimally function. Naturally, even at rest we lose fluid by as much as 1-3L per day.

In any training greater than 60 minutes long and high intensity, Water and/or sports drink, if possible, containing the necessary and sufficient nutrients such as sodium (to promote water absorption) and carbohydrates. The latter delay, but do not prevent, muscle fatigue; since the utilization rate is higher than the ability to eat carbohydrates during exercise.

Always have drinks during a pause in a game such as penalties, conversions, at half-time and, always when the referee allows you to… or between exercise sessions in the gym/field. Pay special attention to those who remain substitutes, they must rehydrate in the substitutes’ bench, to be prepared in case they have to enter the game.

If we are dehydrated our performance will NOT be optimal, with weight loss of 2% there is decreased athletic performance, 3% decrease in physical endurance 4% there is decreased muscle strength, thus having a personal plan and drinking a sufficient amount of fluid could be the difference between winning and losing.

You should not wait to be thirsty to drink liquid; at that moment you are already dehydrated!!

Other reasons for inadequate liquid intakes are lack of availability of liquids, unrespecting liquids, sports tradition, lack of awareness in the subject.

REHYDRATION (PARTY/TRAINING)

The volume of liquid lost depends on the intensity and duration of the activity, the temperature and ambient humidity, the clothing used, the acclimatization of the person to heat, the movement of air and solar radiation. The thirst mechanism is activated when a lot of fluid has already been lost, so it is important to control losses by comparing pre- and post-activity weight and urine color (the more yellow, the greater fluid loss, usually).

Example of how urine colour might vary with Hydration status:

Ref: EU Hydration Institute

The strategy to follow is: drink 1/2 litre of sports drink as soon as you finish training/playing and then you should consume up to 150% of the lost weight, within 2-3 hours. Example: 90Kg player with a dehydration of 2% lost 1.8Kg, the volume to consume would be 2.7 litres (2700ml): 1st half litre and then 2200ml.

As a rule, consume between 500-1000ml/hour of sports drink or mineral water (without gas), larger amounts may be necessary on days of high temperatures.

Although there is no exact answer for how much water you should consume as everyone may have different needs depending on individual and environmental factors, aim for approximately 35ml of fluid per kg body weight. That is just over 2 litres for a 60kg adult, or 2.8 litres for an 80kg adult. Active children should aim for 1-1.5 litres per day (approx. 4-6 glasses) and everyone should consume extra fluid if exercising.

All this is plannable and trainable!! Do not leave hydration released at random. Do not test these strategies for the first time in a match; but try to get used to drinking workouts every 15-20 minutes.

DEHYDRATION is one of the main 5 nutritional factors related to fatigue and decreased performance, along with the emptying of glycogen deposits (energy) in active muscles, decreased blood glucose (hypoglycemia), gastrointestinal discomfort, excess adipose mass (ballast). All is preventable with food education and “training” habits.

It is up to you to be hydrated.

Some ideas

1-2 hours before exercise – suitable foods include:

  • Milk shake or smoothie
  • Breakfast cereal with milk
  • Cereal bars
  • Fruit-flavoured yoghurt
  • Fruit

Less than 1 hour before exercise – suitable foods include:

  • Sports drinks
  • Squash drinks
  • Jelly sweets

References:

Maintaining Euhydration Preserves Cognitive Performance, But Is Not Superior to Hypohydration Stephen P. J. Goodman, Ashleigh T. Moreland & Frank E. Marino Journal of Cognitive Enhancement volume 3, pages338–348(2019)

Eat Well, Feel Well: The Importance Of Hydrationhttps://www.irishrugby.ie/2020/05/12/eat-well-feel-well-the-importance-of-hydration/

National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for the Physically Active J Athl Train. 2017 Sep; 52(9): 877–895.

Key tips on hydration Educational tool-measuring hydration status – European Hydration Institute

Water: http://www.Scienceforsport.com 

 

Inspiring video from Lindsay Hilton.

Credit to Lindsay Hilton and Fitness Lovrs for the video..

Video from Lindsay Hilton

New Blog starting in the New Year

Hello,

New Blogs starting in the new year and published once a month.

From the BJSM: Benefits of Regular Exercise

Impressive Physical , mental, social & emotional benefits of regular exercise:

 

New Website from England Rugby

If you want to become a Rugby Coach or a Referee get started with this website:

Home

 

Check the Video Library:

http://keepyourbootson.co.uk/kybo-video-library/

 

Watch videos to support your journey as a coach or referee. Videos on Course Insights, Game Changers, Coaches on Coaching, Whistle-Stops, Referees on Refereeing, Young Match Officials, Laws & Rules and Women in Rugby.

Circuit Rugby Fitness

USA Rugby 7’s Dynamic Warmup

With the 7’s season underway in Latin America here’s the 7’s program from Rugby USA for Dynamic warm ups who published the following video.