Sports Drinks and how to make your own

With lockdown easing and the return of Grassroot sports, it is very important to keep hydrated. sports performance can be affected by dehydration, so it is important to be well hydrated…before, during and after activity.

Drinks can contain various amounts of carbohydrate & electrolytes (salts) that assist with rehydration or energy replacement. Choose a drink depending on whether you need to replace fluids or energy/carbohydrate (or both):

Water – will replace fluid losses but not provide energy – suitable for low intensity or short duration exercise (less than 45 minutes) – for longer activities (more than one hour) add a little sugar & salt to enhance absorption & fluid retention.

Hypotonic drinks – these contain low levels of carbohydrate (less than 3g/100ml) & some salt – they are absorbed into the body more quickly than water – they provide fluid but not much energy use these drinks to replace fluid quickly & when energy is not really required (if training lasts less than one hour & is low intensity).

Isotonic drinks – these contain carbohydrate (4-8g/100ml) – they are absorbed into the body as fast or faster than plain water – they provide fluid & some carbohydrate to fuel the muscles – these are the most effective drinks to use for rehydration during training & competition use these to replace fluids & for some energy (if training for more than one hour) – drink before, during & after exercise.

Hypertonic drinks – these have a higher carbohydrate content (more than 10g/100ml), including pure fruit juice, many canned drinks & energy drinks – they are absorbed more slowly than plain water – they replace lost energy rather than fluids & are therefore not an effective way to rehydrate use these when energy replacement is important (eg: when you are unable to get enough energy from food & need to top up your daily carbohydrate intake),

Stimulant drinks usually have a high carbohydrate content (which does not help with rehydration) & other additives (eg: caffeine, taurine), most of which have no beneficial effect on performance. These drinks should be avoided during sport.

Most people need 1.5-2L of fluid per day plus what is lost during exercise. Fluid includes all drinks, plus fluid in meals (like milk on cereal, or soup). Ideally, start activity fully hydrated by drinking about 500ml water, or suitable sports drink, about 2 hours before activity, plus another 150-350ml in the 10 minutes before starting activity. During activity drink small amounts frequently (150-200ml every 15-20 minutes). After activity, try to replace fluid losses within 2 hours, especially if training more than once a day. Do not wait until you feel thirsty (by then you will already be dehydrated).

Young athletes bodies are less able to cope with the stresses of activity because their bodies are not very efficient when coping with the heat activity generates, & the temperature & humidity of some pools do not help the situation. As a result young athletes are at greater risk of dehydration, as well as being more sensitive to its effects. Young athletes do not realise how much fluid they are losing during activity & they are not very good at replacing fluids voluntarily – therefore they should be reminded to drink during training (every 15-20 minutes). Children should be allowed to drink until their thirst is satisfied, then encouraged to drink some more (because their thirst mechanism is poorly developed). If young athletes are particularly irritable at the end of a training session they should be monitored to assess how much fluid they are habitually drinking. Water is an acceptable drink, but it may be necessary to provide a flavoured drink that is more appealing & provides some energy.

Fluid losses can be monitored by checking body weight before & after activity (1kg lost body weight = 1L fluid lost from the body). Dehydration can be checked by using a pee chart (right).

 

Generally, if training involves less than an hour of activity it is not necessary to refuel during activity. Good food & regular drinks before training will provide adequate energy & hydration for activity, and then good food & drink choices after activity will refuel & rehydrate the body.

Recipes for home-made sports drinks

Try different drinks during training to find one that you like. Drinks might taste different during & after exercise, so don’t decide on a drink when you are not exercising. Choose a drink that best matches your needs (fluid or energy). Salt in drinks enhances absorption & retention of fluid in the body.

 

Hypotonic drink                                   Hypotonic drink

100ml fruit squash                               250ml fruit juice

900ml water                                        750ml water

1/5th teaspoon (1g) salt                        1/5th teaspoon (1g) salt

 

Isotonic drink

50-70g glucose or sugar

1L water or sugar-free squash

1/5th teaspoon (1g) salt

Dissolve the glucose or sugar & salt in 100ml warm water before adding them to the remaining 900ml cold water or sugar-free squash

 

Isotonic drink                                      Isotonic drink

500ml unsweetened fruit juice             150ml high juice squash

500ml water                                        850ml water

1/5th teaspoon (1g) salt                        1/5th teaspoon (1g) salt

 

Hypertonic drink

400ml squash

1L water

1/5th teaspoon (1g) salt

 

References:

Sport Nutrition 3rd Edition 2019 Author: Asker Jeukendrup Michael Gleeson

Food for Sport: Eat Well, Perform Better Griffin, Jane (2001) Food for sport, Crowood Press

https://www.bda.uk.com/ 

www.sportsdietitians.com.au;

Single leg hop for distance symmetry masks lower limb biomechanics:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103677

Time to discuss Single Leg Hop distance as decision criteria for return to sport after #ACL reconstruction ?

A MUST read paper and not surprised after seeing the authors associated with the work

The study evaluated the lower limb status of athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) during the propulsion and landing phases of a single leg hop for distance (SLHD) task after they had been cleared to return to sport.

The Authors wanted to evaluate the biomechanical components of the involved (operated) and uninvolved legs of athletes with ACLR and compare these legs with those of uninjured athletes (controls).

For the full paper click on the link : bjsports-2020-103677.full

 

PLANNING IN-CONTEXT

Too often, a “new” training or exercise method will emerge, and everyone will get in the cart and quickly incorporate exercise or change into the training method. This in my experience has been found to be prevalent at Grassroots and Amateur sport.

The attitude is, if this and the other is what the world record holder does, it must be good and therefore I will copy it. This is known as monkey sees, monkey do

The use of chains in weight training, using Ladders to improve agility are two examples that comes to mind. They are viable tools if they fit in. Before we incorporate something, we need to see how it is inscribed in the context of what is already being done and we need to carefully evaluate the context in which it was successful.

However, we must always keep an open mind and incorporate sensible innovations where appropriate.

Context is a key element of an S&C system. The context establishes the nature of the relationship of the various components of training within the system. What we do today in training must fit with what we did yesterday and should flow into what we are going to do tomorrow. Bringing something alien that is not proven or shown to be effective undermines the system.

The same is true for training components particularly in contact sports. Perhaps the biggest violation of the context principle is taking one of the components, for example, speed or strength training it to the exclusion of all other physical qualities. This is flawed. It is possible to design a program where a component is emphasized during one phase, but they must be taken into proportion to the other components and placed in the context of the total training plan.

If the context principle is not observed, then the training components will be disproportionate, and adaptation will not occur at the intended level. The best way to keep everything in context is to plan well and stick to the plan, explain to the athletes how does it work so they can buy into the Planning.

Periodization

How important is planning? Not planning is planning failure. So obviously I think it is important, but I have some questions about the concept of periodization that acquires popular acceptance. Where does it come from that focus on planning should be, long-term or short-term? I have concluded that the focus should be on short-term detailed planning, the real micro cycle, and the training session. I have found in recent years that the Meso Cycle plan demands constant adjustment particularly at levels other than elite.

Personally I used to put too many details into the plan and in the long run had to cut back or changing it anyway. The other aspect of planning that should require attention is planning the interaction between all components of the training. Is everything in context or is there something unexpected?

Ironically, some of the most productive training sessions I have had as a coach have come when I threw away the plan and followed my instincts because of unexpected variables. There are no secret programs or shortcuts to athletic excellence. Great training programs focus on fundamentals and build on the basics

Periodization is an art, moving forward and making more meaningful planning will require a major paradigm shift. Periodization in S & C follows in its current format follows linear reductionism (it’s the science that involves breaking things down into their smallest possible parts.), which has brought us to this point, but which prevents us from moving forward into the future.

Adaptive approach

Advances in Sports Science and coaching methodologies in the last 25 years has come in leaps and bounds, logically, this led us to an Adaptive approach to training planning (i.e., best optimal performance) The adaptive approach focuses on relationships and connections.

This framework integrates performance indicators such as training load measures, physiological constraints, and behaviour-change features like goal setting and self-monitoring. It provides a training plan, being adopted by the athlete, and its goal adapts to the athlete’s behaviour.  The framework for this adaptive approach is to have it personalized for athletes.

Adaptive Approach is to take advantage of these constantly changing connections and relationships. The one thing to avoid is overtraining, staleness, failure to develop transferable skills, psychological (e.g., decreased enjoyment, sense of failure) and social (e.g., limited social opportunities) particularly in young athletes or people just wanting to enjoy the sport.

(In terms of unpaid athletes, unplanned conditions such as overtime jobs, family issues and illness may intervene in the athlete’s plan. Reorganization of the training plan may be needed to cover these unpredictable issues to maintain or raise athlete’s performance as much as possible in the remaining time until competition day.)

The use of this training approach literally becomes a dance of discovery. It requires the coach to participate more actively in the follow-up of all aspects of the training. This is a significant deviation from focusing on the training parts (components) and goal setting also it assumes that the training parts will meet in a kind of reasonable useful set to work with.

The plan should constantly seek critical relationships that will allow the body to adapt to the stress of training. The body is a fully integrated system, to optimize the performance of this system you must have an approach to the planning and execution of training.

Reference:

Book:
The Gambetta Method (2nd edition): Common Sense Training for Athletic Performance – Authors                James Radcliffe and Vern Gambetta

Science Articles:

A Conceptual Framework for the Generation of Adaptive Training Plans in Sports Coaching | SpringerLink

Planning a sports training program using Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization with emphasis on physiological constraints | BMC Research Notes | Full Text (biomedcentral.com)

Cumulative Sport‑Related Injuries and Longer Term Impact in Retired Male Elite‑ and Amateur‑Level Rugby Code Athletes and Non‑contact Athletes: A Retrospective Study

Interesting study by Durham University on the impact of the accumulation of injuries on both professional and amateur rugby players, important role on the Concussion.
Rugby union and rugby league are popular team contact sports, but they bring a high risk of injury. Although previous studies have reported injury occurrence across one or several seasons, none have explored the total number of injuries sustained across an entire career.
Reading the paper efforts should be prioritized to reduce the occurrence and recurrence of injuries in rugby codes at all levels of the sport.
Strategies should be developed for supporting specific physical health needs of both codes athlete’s post-retirement.
To read the full Article click on the PDF : Durham Study

A Team Sport Risk Exposure Framework to Support the Return to Sport

With Amateur Sports returning to training this is a timely reminder how to training and player proximity interactions when following guidelines in minutiae.

BLOG: British Journal of Sports Medicine Published 1/7/2020

Useful for sports to quantify risk in training & matches, & help guide contact tracing

Authors : Ben Jones 1,2,3,4,5, Gemma Phillips 2,6, Simon PT Kemp 7,10, Steffan A Griffin 7,8, Clint Readhead 4,9, Neil Pearce 10, Keith A Stokes 7,11

Background

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in global disruption to many sports. There are a number of challenges in returning to sport, especially given the unprecedented duration of time that athletes have not been able to train or compete in normal environments(1), the potential health risk to athletes, their coaches, support staff, the wider public, and the limited evidence base available to inform decisions. Every sport will carry different infection risks, given the specific match demands and training requirements(2). Furthermore, considerations regarding the return to training and match play will be greatly influenced by the national impact of COVID-19(3). A good example is the comparison of United Kingdom (COVID-19 mortality of >42,000), vs. Australia and New Zealand (COVID-19 mortality of <150)(4). In particular, New Zealand has now eliminated SARS-CoV-2, and rugby and other sports are now occurring ‘as normal’.

Full Blog can be found here:Blogs BJSM

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Nutrients : journal of human nutrition

The Effects of Physical Activity and Diet Interventions on Body Mass Index in Latin American Children and Adolescents:  A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Andrés Godoy-Cumillaf , Paola Fuentes-Merino, Armando Díaz-González , Judith Jiménez-Díaz , Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno , Celia Álvarez-Bueno and Iván Cavero-Redondo

I don’t usually read this journal but this study published on the 20th of May addresses physical activity and nutrition and caught my attention. This paper did a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of physical activity only with that of physical activity plus diet interventions on body mass index (BMI) in Latin American children and adolescents.

The Study discusses results on the effect of physical activity plus diet agree with previous meta-analyses that have analysed non-Latin American populations, highlighting that physical activity is one of  the central elements of weight loss. However, when combined with diet intervention, the reduction ranged from 3.2% to 20% more, underscoring that the best results are achieved when calories are restricted. All this confirms the necessity of designing interventions which combine physical activity with a nutritional component. physical activity plus diet programs proved to be more efficient in decreasing BMI values in children and adolescents.

To summarise it is necessary to implement more physical activity plus diet interventions in Latin America, in order to help in reducing the high levels of overweight and obesity that are found in this region.

To read the full Article click on the link : Nutrients

Patterns of training volume and injury risk in elite rugby union: An analysis of 1.5 million hours of training exposure over eleven seasons

Stephen W. West, Sean Williams, Simon P. T. Kemp, Matthew J. Cross, Carly McKay, Colin W. Fuller, Aileen Taylor, John H. M. Brooks & Keith A. Stokes (2020)

Patterns of training volume and injury risk in elite rugby union: An analysis of 1.5 million hours of training exposure over eleven seasons, Journal of Sports Sciences, 38:3, 238-247, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1692415

One of the most fascinating journals I have read in a while, the study on Rugby union examines trends in training volume and its impact on injury incidence, severity and burden over an 11-season period in English professional rugby.

The study recorded from 2007/08 through 2017/18, capturing 1,501,606 h of training exposure and 3,782 training injuries. Players completed, on average, 6h 48 minutes of weekly training (95% CI: 6 h 30 mins to 7 h 6 mins): this value remained stable over the 11 seasons.

Results showed increased severity, injury burden rose from 51 days absence/1000 player-hours in 2007/08 to 106 days’ absence/1000 player-hours in 2017/18. Despite the low incidence of injury in training compared to match-play, training accounted for 34% of all injuries. Future assessments of training intensity may lead to a greater understanding of the rise in injury severity.

The study’s research found a sparsity of information regarding changes to the composition and volume of training over time and the impact of these changes on the incidence, severity and type of training injuries. Their aim was to assess longitudinal changes in volume and type of training, and to explore the effect of these changes on training injury over eleven seasons.

Over the 11 season they demonstrated that match injuries are often the result of unpredictable game events and hence difficult to prevent, training is conducted in a largely controlled environment and it may be considered easier to reduce injuries in this environment

The study suggests that to reduce the overall time loss associated with injury in rugby union, the focus of these efforts may be best placed in training, compared with match-play.

The practical implications of this study are evident for both practice and policy. In practice, this data can be used by clubs to identify differences between themselves and that of elite rugby union clubs in England, in both the volume of training completed as well as the injury patterns they see.

Future studies are needed to establish the exact nature, methodologies, intensity and composition of full contact training, given its high incidence of injury. Developing a greater understanding of the mechanisms driving the increase in injury severity is warranted to reduce the overall burden of injury from training.

This study provides the largest and most comprehensive view of training volume and training injury in professional rugby union.  Results provided season variations which are apparent, the volume of training did not change between 2007/08 and 2017/18.

To ready the full study and make your own conclusions click on the link Patterns of training volume

Early Strength and Conditioning techniques at the turn of the 20th Century

They had the right idea for punishment or training? You decide

Infographic – mental fatigue influences aerobic exercise more than anaerobic

This graphic shows how a cognitively demanding activity negatively influences subsequent aerobic performance more so than max strength/power efforts.

The authors feel that this might be due to the increased perception of effort rather than any specific physiological phenomenon.

Safe Return to Training Guidelines

Statement from the NSCA:

The incidence of injuries and deaths related to Exertional Heat Illness (EHI), Exertional Rhabdomyolysis (ER), and Cardiorespiratory Failure has increased significantly in college athletes in recent years. Data indicate that these injuries and deaths are more likely to occur during periods when athletes are transitioning from relative inactivity to regular training.

To address this problem, the CSCCa and NSCA have created consensus guidelines which recommend upper limits on the volume, intensity, and work: rest ratio during transition periods where athletes are more vulnerable.

The consensus guidelines provide strength and conditioning coaches with a clear framework for safe and effective program design in the first 2—4 weeks following periods of inactivity or return from EHI or ER. Adhering to the consensus guidelines, conducting preparticipation medical evaluations, and establishing emergency action plans will reduce the incidence of injuries and deaths in college athletes.

Keep reading here : ARTICLE