The Influence of Neck Stiffness on Head Kinematics and Maximum Principal Strain Associated With Youth American Football Collisions

A recent article from the Journal of Applied Biomechanics and on Neck injuries which is a current hot topic.

Authors:

Janie Cournoyer
David Koncan
Michael D. Gilchrist
T. Blaine Hoshizaki

University of Ottawa;
University College Dublin

Published: 08 Mar 2021

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in head kinematics and maximum principal strain in youth American football helmet-to-helmet collisions between an unbiased neckform and prototype neck apparatus, including springs, representing the upper trapezius, the splenius capitis, and the sternocleidomastoid muscles, for 3 impact velocities, 3 impact locations, and 2 striking masses. This research was part of a larger project funded by the National Operating Committee on Sport Safety Equipment to inform youth helmet testing procedures.

Understanding the relationship between head mass and neck stiffness during direct head impacts is especially concerning in youth sports where athletes have higher proportional head mass to neck strength.

For full study results and conclusions click on the link

The Influence of Neck Stiffness on Head Kinematics and Maximum Principal Strain Associated With Youth American Football Collisions

 

Looking after your mental health and well being

Publication from UK Coaching:

As a coach, your performance may, or will be, critical to success in your role. How you feel and what you think ultimately effects your behaviour in this performance role. Your mental health
has a ‘two-way street’ relationship with how you feel and what you think. Therefore, it is of great significance to consider – to care for yourself and your mental health and well-being.
The World Health Organization states that mental health is where an individual realises their potential, can cope with everyday stress, can work productively, and contribute to their
community. Mental health and well-being is associated with positive physical health, pro-social behaviour and the ability to self-regulate and cope with adversity. Key aspects to positive
mental health are as follows: you feel good on a regular basis; you can reflect positively on your life, your abilities and achievements; you can be self-compassionate to yourself; and finally, you feel and believe there is a sense of meaning in your life.

Click on PDF to continue reading :  Looking after your mental health and well being

 

Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a systematic review

Authors:

Stephanie Stockwell, Mike Trott, Mark Tully, Jae Shin, Yvonne Barnett, Laurie Butler, Daragh McDermott, Felipe Schuch, Lee Smith

BMJ Open Sp Ex Med 2021

Abstract In March 2020, several countries banned unnecessary outdoor activities during COVID-19, commonly called ‘lockdowns. These lockdowns have the potential to impact associated levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Given the numerous health outcomes associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour, the aim of this review was to summarise literature that investigated differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before vs during the COVID-19 lockdown.

Study Conclusions:

Given the numerous physical and mental benefits of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour, public health strategies should include the creation and implementation of interventions that promote safe physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour should other lockdowns occur.

What are the new findings?
► The majority of studies show that Physical Activity (PA) levels decreased during the COVID-19 lockdown across all
reviewed populations, except for eating disorder patients.
► The majority of studies show that Sedentary Behaviour (SB) levels increased.
► Public health strategies should include the promotion of PA and effective guidance on how to decrease SB during a lockdown, especially in populations with medical conditions that are improved by PA, such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Full study click here Changes in Physical Activity

 

 

Implementation of the Activate injury prevention exercise programme in English schoolboy rugby union

(Activate is the RFU’s Injury Prevention Exercise Programme) which all coaches should be made aware.

Authors:

Craig Barden1, Keith A Stokes1,2, Carly D McKay1,3

1.- Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK
2.- Rugby Football Union, Twickenham, London, UK
3.- Centre for Motivation and Health Behaviour Change, University of Bath, Bath, UK

Fascinating paper just published on the 4th of May 2021, The Objectives of the study about the implementation of the Activate injury prevention exercise programme has not been assessed in an applied context.

This study aimed to

(1) describe the knowledge and perceptions of school rugby coaches and players towards injury risk, prevention and Activate and

(2) evaluate Activate implementation in schoolboy rugby using the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance framework.

►► Coaches reported significantly greater baseline Activate awareness than players (75% and 18%,respectively).
►► Coaches had significantly greater Activate adoption during the study period (76% and 13%).
►► Coaches appear to be critical in the adoption and delivery of Activate in a school rugby environment.
►► Focus on behavioural change in coaches will likely have the greatest effect of Activate implementation.

Addressing coach barriers and using behavioural change theories may aid this.

Conclusion

Coaches had significantly greater awareness and adoption of Activate, with players largely unaware of the programme and if they used it. Coaches are instrumental in the decision to implement Activate. Targeting behavioural change in these individuals is likely to have the greatest impact on intervention uptake.

FULL PAPER Here A MUST Read: Activate Injury Prevention

For further reading click on the link from England Rugby: https://www.englandrugby.com/participation/coaching/activate

Short and long-term differences in anthropometric characteristics and physical performance between male rugby players that became professional or remained amateur

From: Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness

Authors
Michael J.Hamlin
Richard W.Deuchrass
Catherine E.Elliot
Nuttaset Manimmanakorn

An interesting paper that investigates which anthropometric and physical performance variables characterised players that advanced to professional teams (professionals) and how these variables changed over time, compared to those that did not secure professional contracts (i.e. remained amateurs).

Performances analysed for  83 male rugby players collected between 2015 and 2019 were determined using repeated measures analysis.

Study Conclusion

The study conclusion are limited but it states the characteristics that are likely to assist players in becoming professionals include being older, heavier, taller and stronger.

Click on the PDF to make your conclusions. Short and long-term differences in anthropometric characteristics and physical performance between male rugby players

A qualitative investigation into the individual injury burden of amateur rugby players

Authors: Gemma P. Murphy & Rachel B. Sheehan
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Ireland

Highlights

Players shared similar experiences of burden when recovering from a severe injury.

Themes relating to personal and situational factors affect players during injury.

The highest burden of injury occurred during onset of injury and rehabilitation.

Burden of injury has the potential to affect a player’s rehabilitation outcome.

The Author’s findings indicate that individual injury experiences can affect a player’s recovery and rehabilitation outcome, potentially extending the injury process and affecting player availability for the team. As such, injury management should focus on alleviating any injury-related burden experienced by players, as well as burden placed on the team, to maximise rehabilitation outcomes.

Click on link to read the PDF Article: A qualitative investigation into the in..

Single leg hop for distance symmetry masks lower limb biomechanics:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103677

Time to discuss Single Leg Hop distance as decision criteria for return to sport after #ACL reconstruction ?

A MUST read paper and not surprised after seeing the authors associated with the work

The study evaluated the lower limb status of athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) during the propulsion and landing phases of a single leg hop for distance (SLHD) task after they had been cleared to return to sport.

The Authors wanted to evaluate the biomechanical components of the involved (operated) and uninvolved legs of athletes with ACLR and compare these legs with those of uninjured athletes (controls).

For the full paper click on the link : bjsports-2020-103677.full

 

Anterior cruciate ligament injury: towards a gendered environmental approach

Authors:

  1. Joanne L Parsons
  2. Stephanie E Coen
  3. Sheree Bekke

Anterior cruciate ligament injury: towards a gendered environmental approach | British Journal of Sports Medicine (bmj.com)

For all coaches out there, If you work with female athletes of any level in a coaching, clinical or performance role….. This is a must read.

The paper discusses the curious absence of gender as an influencer in the dialogue surrounding ACL injuries. the study proposes adding gender as a pervasive developmental environment as a new theoretical overlay to an established injury model to illustrate how gender can operate as an extrinsic determinant from the pre-sport, training and competition environments through to ACL injury and the treatment environment.

 

For a full read of the paper click here : bjsports-2020-103173.full

 

Head impact exposures in women’s collegiate rugby

Original Research

Authors: Taylor L. Langevin ,Daniel Antonoff,Christina Renodin,Erin Shellene,Lee Spahr,Wallace A. Marsh &John M. Rosene

Published online: 01 Jun 2020 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00913847.2020.1770568?journalCode=ipsm20

OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts and track concussions sustained in a collegiate level women’s rugby season.

METHODS: Data on head impact incidence and magnitude were collected via Smart Impact Monitors (SIM) (Triax Technologies, Inc., Norwalk, CT) within fitted headbands during practices and games of one competitive season. Magnitude data included peak linear acceleration (PLA) and peak rotational velocity (PRV) measurements and were reported as median [IQR].

RESULTS: Players sustained 120 head impacts ≥ 15g (18.1g – 78.9g) with 1199 total athlete exposures. In eight games, 67 head impacts were recorded with a mean rate of 0.40 ± 0.22 hits per-player per-match, median PLA of 32.2g and PRV of 13.5 rad.sec-1. There were 53 head impacts in 47 practices with a mean rate of 0.05 ± 0.04 hits per-player per-practice, median PLA of 29.8g and PRV of 15.7 rad.sec-1. Four concussions were reported and monitored.

CONCLUSION: The incidence and magnitude of head impacts in collegiate level women’s rugby over one season of practices and games were fewer than those reported in other comparable studies. These findings give insight into the impact burden that female collegiate rugby athletes withstand throughout a competitive season.

Cumulative Sport‑Related Injuries and Longer Term Impact in Retired Male Elite‑ and Amateur‑Level Rugby Code Athletes and Non‑contact Athletes: A Retrospective Study

Interesting study by Durham University on the impact of the accumulation of injuries on both professional and amateur rugby players, important role on the Concussion.
Rugby union and rugby league are popular team contact sports, but they bring a high risk of injury. Although previous studies have reported injury occurrence across one or several seasons, none have explored the total number of injuries sustained across an entire career.
Reading the paper efforts should be prioritized to reduce the occurrence and recurrence of injuries in rugby codes at all levels of the sport.
Strategies should be developed for supporting specific physical health needs of both codes athlete’s post-retirement.
To read the full Article click on the PDF : Durham Study