A recent article from the Journal of Applied Biomechanics and on Neck injuries which is a current hot topic.
Michael D. Gilchrist
T. Blaine Hoshizaki
University of Ottawa;
University College Dublin
Published: 08 Mar 2021
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in head kinematics and maximum principal strain in youth American football helmet-to-helmet collisions between an unbiased neckform and prototype neck apparatus, including springs, representing the upper trapezius, the splenius capitis, and the sternocleidomastoid muscles, for 3 impact velocities, 3 impact locations, and 2 striking masses. This research was part of a larger project funded by the National Operating Committee on Sport Safety Equipment to inform youth helmet testing procedures.
Understanding the relationship between head mass and neck stiffness during direct head impacts is especially concerning in youth sports where athletes have higher proportional head mass to neck strength.
For full study results and conclusions click on the link