Factors Related to Average Concentric Velocity of Four Barbell Exercises at Various Loads

In this paper, the authors wanted to see whether individual factors such as training experience or anthropometrics influence the average concentric velocity (ACV) during a repetition.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether training age, current training frequency, limb length, height, and relative strength are related to ACV at loads between 35 and 100% of the 1RM for the squat, bench press, Deadlift, and overhead press. A secondary purpose was to compare the ACV values between the 4 lifts at each relative load. Fifty-one (18 women and 33 men) completed 2 testing sessions in which the squat, bench press, deadlift, and overhead press ACV were measured during a modified 1RM protocol.

Generally, compared at the same relative loads, the overhead press exhibited the greatest ACV followed by the squat, bench press, and deadlift (in order). In addition, relative strength level was inversely related to ACV at maximal loads (>95% 1RM) for the squat, bench press, and deadlift while height was positively related to ACV at moderate loads (55% 1RM) for all lifts.

These results suggest that the load-velocity profile is unique for each of these exercises, and that velocity ranges used for exercise prescription should be specific to the exercise. A trainee’s relative strength and height may be a primary influence on the ACV.

Factors Related to Average Concentric Velocity of Four Barbell Exercises at Various Loads